Systems of Gender, Race, and Class Inequality:
Cotter, David A., Joan M. Hermsen, and Reeve Vanneman.
"Systems of Gender, Race, and Class Inequality: Multilevel Analyses"
78 (December): 433-460.
Research on gender stratification has sometimes neglected how gender
inequalities may vary
by race/ethnicity and class. This research investigates the chances
that white, African
American, Hispanic, and Asian women and men reach the 10th, 25th,
50th, 75th, and 90thpercentiles of white male earnings. It
evaluates how these chances have varied across time
since 1965 and across U.S. metropolitan areas in 1990. In general,
the results show a
substantial uniformity of gender differences across all four
racial/ethnic groups and at each
earnings level. While there are important exceptions to these
general patterns, the
permeability of racial and earnings boundaries to gender dynamics is
Similarly, gender boundaries are quite permeable to macro-level
Last updated May 10, 2000